By Thomas F. Mayer
While the Spanish Inquisition has laid the best declare to either scholarly cognizance and the preferred mind's eye, the Roman Inquisition, verified in 1542 and a key tool of papal authority, was once extra robust, vital, and long-lived. based via Paul III and initially aimed to get rid of Protestant heresy, it medieval antecedents yet went past them via turning into a hugely articulated centralized organ at once depending on the pope. through the overdue 16th century the Roman Inquisition had built its personal detailed approaches, felony approach, and body of workers, the congregation of cardinals and a pro employees. Its felony approach grew out of the means of inquisitio formulated via blameless III within the early 13th century, it grew to become the main precocious papal paperwork at the highway to the 1st "absolutist" state.
As Thomas F. Mayer demonstrates, the Inquisition underwent consistent amendment because it multiplied. the hot establishment modeled its case administration and different systems on these of one other medieval ancestor, the Roman excellent court docket, the Rota. With remarkable cognizance to archival assets and element, Mayer portrays a hugely articulated company forms with the pope at its head. He profiles the Cardinal Inquisitors, together with those that could play an important position in Galileo's trials, and information their social and geographical origins, their schooling, financial prestige, past careers within the Church, and networks of patronage. on the aspect this research ends, circa 1640, Pope city VIII had made the Roman Inquisition his own tool and ruled it to some extent none of his predecessors had approached.